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References

Açai Berries

Neida S, Elba S. Caracterización del acai o manaca (Euterpe olerdcea Mart.): un fruto del Amazonas [Characterization of the acai or manaca (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a fruit of the Amazon]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2007 Mar;57(1):94-8. Spanish. PMID: 17824205.

Lichtenthäler R, Rodrigues RB, Maia JG, Papagiannopoulos M, Fabricius H, Marx F. Total oxidant scavenging capacities of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) fruits. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Feb;56(1):53-64. doi: 10.1080/09637480500082082. PMID: 16019315. 

Poulose SM, Fisher DR, Bielinski DF, Gomes SM, Rimando AM, Schauss AG, Shukitt-Hale B. Restoration of stressor-induced calcium dysregulation and autophagy inhibition by polyphenol-rich açaí (Euterpe spp.) fruit pulp extracts in rodent brain cells in vitro. Nutrition. 2014 Jul-Aug;30(7-8):853-62. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2013.11.011. Epub 2013 Dec 5. PMID: 24985004.

Amino acids

Bojarska J. Amino Acids and Short Peptides as Anti Aging “Superfood”. Int J Nutr Sci. 2020;5:1039-44. 45.

Shell W, Bullias D, Charuvastra E, May LA, Silver DS. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of an amino acid preparation on timing and quality of sleep. Am J Ther. 2010 Mar-Apr;17(2):133-9. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e31819e9eab. PMID: 19417589.

Palego L, Betti L, Rossi A, Giannaccini G. Tryptophan Biochemistry: Structural, Nutritional, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects in Humans. J Amino Acids. 2016;2016:8952520. doi: 10.1155/2016/8952520. Epub 2016 Jan 12. PMID: 26881063; PMCID: PMC4737446.

Ashwaghanda

Dongre S, Langade D, Bhattacharyya S. Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Root Extract in Improving Sexual Function in Women: A Pilot Study. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:284154.

Lopresti AL, Smith SJ, Malvi H, Kodgule R. An investigation into the stress-relieving and pharmacological actions of an ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extract: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(37):e17186.

Pratte MA, Nanavati KB, Young V, Morley CP. An alternative treatment for anxiety: a systematic review of human trial results reported for the Ayurvedic herb ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). J Altern Complement Med. 2014;20(12):901-908.

Salve J, Pate S, Debnath K, et al. Adaptogenic and Anxiolytic Effects of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Healthy Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study. Cureus. 2019;11(12): e6466.

Sandhu JS, Shah B, Shenoy S, Chauhan S, Lavekar GS, Padhi MM. Effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) on physical performance and cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy young adults. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010;1(3):144-149.

Singh N, Bhalla M, de Jager P, Gilca M. An overview on ashwagandha: a Rasayana (rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011;8(5 Suppl):208-213.

Raut AA, Rege NN, Tadvi FM, et al. Exploratory study to evaluate tolerability, safety, and activity of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in healthy volunteers. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2012;3(3):111-114.

Wankhede S, Langade D, Joshi K, Sinha SR, Bhattacharyya S. Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12:43.

Astaxanthin

Davinelli S, Nielsen ME, Scapagnini G. Astaxanthin in skin health, repair, and disease: A comprehensive review. Nutrients. 2018;10(4):522.

Higuera-Ciapara I, Felix-Valenzuela L, Goycoolea F. Astaxanthin: a review of its chemistry and applications. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2006;46(2):185-96

Park JS, Chyun JH, Kim YK, Line LL, Chew BP. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutrition & metabolism. 2010;7(1):1-10.

Tominaga K, Hongo N, Karato M, Yamashita E. Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on human subjects. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 2012;59 (1).

Beetroot

Asgary S, Afshani MR, Sahebkar A, Keshvari M, Taheri M, Jahanian E, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Malekian F, Sarrafzadegan N. Improvement of hypertension, endothelial function and systemic inflammation following short-term supplementation with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) juice: a randomized crossover pilot study. J Hum Hypertens. 2016 Oct;30(10):627-32. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2016.34. Epub 2016 Jun 9. PMID: 27278926.

Collagen

Avila Rodríguez MI, Rodriguez Barroso LG, Sánchez ML. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications. Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2018;17(1):20- 6.

Bojarska J. Amino Acids and Short Peptides as Anti Aging “Superfood”. Int J Nutr Sci. 2020;5:1039-44. 45. 

Gad MZ. Anti-aging effects of L-arginine. Journal of advanced research. 2010;1(3):169-77. 

Lin P, Hua N, Hsu Y-C, Kan K-W, Chen J-H, Lin Y H, et al. Oral collagen drink for antiaging: Antioxidation, facilitation of the increase of collagen synthesis, and improvement of protein folding and DNA repair in human skin fibroblasts. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity. 2020.

Vollmer DL, West VA, Lephart ED. Enhancing skin health: by oral administration of natural compounds and minerals with implications to the dermal microbiome. International journal of molecular sciences. 2018;19(10):3059.

CoQ10

Bentinger, M., Brismar, K. & Dallner, G. The antioxidant role of coenzyme Q. Mitochondrion 7(Suppl), S41–50 (2007).

Crane, F. L. Biochemical functions of coenzyme Q10. J Am Coll Nutr 20, 591–598 (2001).

Huo, J. et al. Coenzyme Q10 Prevents Senescence and Dysfunction Caused by Oxidative Stress in Vascular Endothelial Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018, 3181759 (2018).

Lenaz, G., Fato, R., Formiggini, G. & Genova, M. L. The role of Coenzyme Q in mitochondrial electron transport. Mitochondrion 7(Suppl), S8–33 (2007).

Lombardi, A., Trimarco, B., Iaccarino, G. & Santulli, G. Impaired mitochondrial calcium uptake caused by tacrolimus underlies beta-cell failure. Cell Commun Signal 15, 47 (2017).

Luo, K., Yu, J.H., Quan, Y. et al. Therapeutic potential of coenzyme Q10 in mitochondrial dysfunction during tacrolimus-induced beta cell injury. Sci Rep 9, 7995 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44475-x.

Muta‐Takada K, Terada T, Yamanishi H, Ashida Y, Inomata S, Nishiyama T, et al. Coenzyme Q10 protects against oxidative stress‐induced cell death and enhances the synthesis of basement membrane components in dermal and epidermal cells. Biofactors. 2009;35(5):435-41. 51. 

Prahl S, Kueper T, Biernoth T, Wöhrmann Y, Münster A, Fürstenau M, et al. Aging skin is functionally anaerobic: importance of coenzyme Q10 for anti aging skin care. Biofactors. 2008;32(1‐4):245-55.

Spindler, M., Beal, M. F. & Henchcliffe, C. Coenzyme Q10 effects in neurodegenerative disease. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 5, 597–610 (2009).

Stojanovic, M. & Radenkovic, M. A meta-analysis of randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trials suggests that coenzyme Q10 at low dose improves glucose and HbA1c levels. Nutr Res 38, 1–12 (2017).

Folic Acid

Asbaghi O, Salehpour S, Rezaei Kelishadi M, Bagheri R, Ashtary-Larky D, Nazarian B, Mombaini D, Ghanavati M, Clark CCT, Wong A, Naeini AA. Folic acid supplementation and blood pressure: a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of 41,633 participants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2023;63(13):1846-1861. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1968787. Epub 2021 Sep 3. PMID: 34478339.

Hwang SY, Kang YJ, Sung B, Jang JY, Hwang NL, Oh HJ, et al. Folic acid is necessary for proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Journal of cellular physiology. 2018;233(2):736-47.

Glutamine

Coster J, McCauley R, Hall J. Glutamine: metabolism and application in nutrition support. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(1):25-31. PMID: 15003911.

Hwang SY, Kang YJ, Sung B, Jang JY, Hwang NL, Oh HJ, et al. Folic acid is necessary for proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Journal of cellular physiology. 2018;233(2):736-47.

Newsholme P, Procopio J, Lima MM, Pithon-Curi TC, Curi R. Glutamine and glutamate--their central role in cell metabolism and function. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003 Mar;21(1):1-9. doi: 10.1002/cbf.1003. PMID: 12579515.

Glutathione

De Carolis, C.  Perricone, C. Perricone, R. Glutathione: a key player in autoimmunity, Autoimmunity Reviews, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2009.02.020., (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19393193/)

Effect of Glutathione Infusion on Leg Arterial Circulation, Cutaneous Microcirculation, and Pain-Free Walking Distance in Patients With Peripheral Obstructive Arterial Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Enrico Arosio, MD, Sergio De Marchi, MD

Ghezzi P. Role of glutathione in immunity and inflammation in the lung. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:105-113. Published 2011 Jan 25. doi:10.2147/IJGM.S15618, (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048347/)

Massimo Zannoni, MD, Manlio Prior, MD, Alessandro Lechi, MD, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, DOI:https://doi.org/10.4065/77.8.754, (https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(11)62019-3/abstract 

Sonthalia S, Jha AK, Lallas A, Jain G, Jakhar D. Glutathione for skin lightening: a regnant myth or evidence-based verity?. Dermatol Pract Concept. 2018;8(1):15-21. Published 2018 Jan 31. doi:10.5826/dpc.0801a04, (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808366/)

Sastre, J., Pallardó, F.V. & Viña, J. Glutathione, oxidative stress and aging. AGE 19, 129–139 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02434082, (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02434082#citeas)

Zeevalk GD, Bernard LP, Guilford F. Liposomal-glutathione provides maintenance of intracellular glutathione and neuroprotection in mesencephalic neuronal cells. Neurochemical Research. 2010;35:1575-87.

 

5-HTP

Evans C, Mekhail V, Curtis J, Czartoryski P, Kaminski J, Ellerbroek A, Bustillo E, Jiannine L, Santana JC, Antonio J. The Effects of 5-HTP on Body Composition: An 8-Week Preliminary RCT. J Diet Suppl. 2023;20(4):621-630. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2022.2076760. Epub 2022 May 18. PMID: 35583055.

Shaw KA, Turner J, Del Mar C. Tryptophan and 5‐ Hydroxytryptophan for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2002(1).

 

 Magnesium

Al Alawi AM, Majoni SW, Falhammar H. Magnesium and human health: perspectives and research directions. Int J Endocrinol. 2018;2018:9041694. doi:10.1155%2F2018%2F9041694.

Armstrong C; American Academy of Neurology; American Headache Society. AAN/AHS update recommendations for migraine prevention in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2013;87(8):584-585.

National Institutes of Health. Magnesium - health professional fact sheet.

The importance of magnesium in clinical healthcare. Scientifica (Cairo). 2017;2017:4179326. doi:10.1155/2017/4179326

Dickinson HO, Nicolson D, Campbell F, et al. Magnesium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2006;3:CD004640. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004640.pub2

Hardy ST, Loehr LR, Butler KR, et al. Reducing the blood pressure-related burden of cardiovascular disease: impact of achievable improvements in blood pressure prevention and control. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4(10):e002276. doi:10.1161/JAHA.115.002276

Hellmann H, Mooney S. Vitamin B6: a molecule for human health? Molecules. 2010 Jan 20;15(1):442-59. doi: 10.3390/molecules15010442. PMID: 20110903; PMCID: PMC6257116.

Lin PT, Cheng CH, Liaw YP, Lee BJ, Lee TW, Huang YC. Low pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. Nutrition. 2006 Nov-Dec;22(11-12):1146-51. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2006.08.013. Epub 2006 Oct 10. PMID: 17045461.

Kass L, Weekes J, Carpenter L. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(4):411-418. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.4

Nutt DJ. Relationship of neurotransmitters to the symptoms of major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69 Suppl E1:4-7. PMID: 18494537.

Zhang X, Li Y, Del Gobbo LC, et al. Effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials. Hypertension. 2016;68(2):324-33. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.07664

 

Nicotinamide Riboside

Airhart, S.E., et al., An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR) and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers. PLoS One, 2017. 12(12): p. E0186459.

Belenky, P., K.L. Bogan, and C. Brenner, NAD+ metabolism in health and disease. Trends Biochem Sci, 2007. 32(1): p. 12-9.

Bieganowski, P. and C. Brenner, Discoveries of nicotinamide riboside as a nutrient and conserved NRK genes establish a Preiss-Handler independent route to NAD+ in fungi and humans. Cell, 2004. 117(4): p. 495-502.

Boutant, M. and C. Canto, SIRT1 metabolic actions: Integrating recent advances from mouse models. Mol Metab, 2014. 3(1): p. 5-18.

Braidy, N., et al., Age related changes in NAD+ metabolism oxidative stress and Sirt1 activity in wistar rats. PLoS One, 2011. 6(4): p. e19194.

Canto, C., et al., The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity. Cell Metab, 2012.

15(6): p. 838-47.

Canto, C., K.J. Menzies, and J. Auwerx, NAD(+) Metabolism and the Control of Energy Homeostasis: A Balancing Act between Mitochondria and the Nucleus. Cell Metab, 2015. 22(1): p. 31-53.

Chini, C.C.S., M.G. Tarrago, and E.N. Chini, NAD and the aging process: Role in life, death and everything in between. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2017. 455: p. 62-74.

Dollerup, O.L., et al., A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of nicotinamide riboside in obese men: safety, insulin-sensitivity, and lipid-mobilizing effects. Am J Clin Nutr, 2018.

Imai, S. and L. Guarente, NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends Cell Biol, 2014. 24(8): p. 464-71.

Imai, S., Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt): a link between NAD biology, metabolism, and diseases. Curr Pharm Des, 2009. 15(1): p. 20-8.

Kanfi, Y., et al., The sirtuin SIRT6 regulates lifespan in male mice. Nature, 2012. 483(7388): p. 218-21.

Gomes, A.P., et al., Declining NAD(+) induces a pseudohypoxic state disrupting nuclear-mitochondrial communication during aging. Cell, 2013. 155(7): p. 1624-38.

Martens, C.R., et al., Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and elevates NAD(+) in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Nat Commun, 2018. 9(1): p. 1286.

Massudi, H., et al., Age-associated changes in oxidative stress and NAD+ metabolism in human tissue. PLoS One, 2012. 7(7): p. e42357.

Mouchiroud, L., et al., The NAD(+)/Sirtuin Pathway Modulates Longevity through Activation of Mitochondrial UPR and FOXO Signaling. Cell, 2013. 154(2): p. 430-41.

Chang, H.C. and L. Guarente, SIRT1 and other sirtuins in metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab, 2014. 25(3): p. 138-45.

Ratajczak, J., et al., NRK1 controls nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside metabolism in mammalian cells. Nat Commun, 2016. 7: p. 13103.

Revollo, J.R., A.A. Grimm, and S. Imai, The NAD biosynthesis pathway mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase regulates Sir2 activity in mammalian cells.

Sun X, Chen W-D, Wang Y-D. DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor in aging and longevity. Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017;8:548.

Trammell, S.A., et al., Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally bioavailable in mice and humans. Nat Commun, 2016. 7: p. 12948.

Zhu, X.H., et al., In vivo NAD assay reveals the intracellular NAD contents and redox state in healthy human brain and their age dependences. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2015. 112(9): p. 2876-81.

Ziegler, M. and M. Niere, NAD+ surfaces again. Biochem J, 2004. 382(Pt 3): p. E5-6.

 

Vitamin C

Afkhami-Ardekani M, Shojaoddiny-Ardekani A. Effect of vitamin C on blood glucose, serum lipids & serum insulin in type 2 diabetes patients. Indian J Med Res. 2007;126(5):471-4.

Audera C, Patulny RV, Sander BH, Douglas RM. Mega-dose vitamin C in treatment of the common cold: a randomised controlled trial. Med J Aust. 2001;175(7):359-362.

Canter PH, Wider B, Ernst E. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, E and selenium in the treatment of arthritis: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Rheumatology. 2007;46(8):1223-33.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Of Sciences. 2002. Accessed Sept. 14, 2007.

Juraschek SP, Guallar E, Appel LJ, Miller ER. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(5):1079-88.

Poljšak B, Ionescu JG. Pro-oxidant vs. antioxidant effects of vitamin C. Handbook of Vitamin C Research: Daily Requirements, Dietary Sources and Adverse Effects (pp.153-183). January 2009. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Pullar JM, Carr AC, Vissers M. The roles of vitamin C in skin health. Nutrients. 2017;9(8):866. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000.

Pullar JM, Carr AC, Vissers MC. The roles of vitamin C in skin health. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 12;9(8):866.

 

Vitamin D3 + K2

A.J. van Ballegooijen, et al., “Combined Low Vitamin D and K Status Amplifies Mortality Risk: A Prospective Study,” European Journal of Nutrition 60, 1645–1654 (2021).

A.J. van Ballegooijen, et al., “Joint Association of Low Vitamin D and Vitamin K Status with Blood Pressure and Hypertension,” Hypertension 69(6), 1165–1172 (2017).

Aranow C. Vitamin D and the immune system. Journal of investigative medicine. 2011;59(6):881-6. 30. Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, Hooper RL, Greenberg L, Aloia JF, Bergman P, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. bmj. 2017;356.

Chun RF, Liu PT, Modlin RL, Adams JS, Hewison M. Impact of vitamin D on immune function: lessons learned from genome-wide analysis. Frontiers in physiology. 2014;5:151.

Fu, et al., “9-Cis Retinoic Acid Reduces 1alpha,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol-Induced Renal Calcification by Altering Vitamin K-Dependent Gamma-Carboxylation of Matrix Gamma-Carboxyglutamic Acid Protein in A/J Male Mice,” J. Nutr. 138(12), 2337–2341 (2008).

Guan Y, Hao Y, Guan Y, Bu H, Wang H. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in medicine. 2020;7:768.

Kuang, et al., “The Combination Effect of Vitamin K and Vitamin D on Human Bone Quality: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials,” Food Funct. 11(4), 3280–3297 (2020).

P.A. Price, et al., “Warfarin-Induced Artery Calcification is Accelerated by Growth and Vitamin D,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 20, 317–327 (2000).

Koshihara and K. Hoshi, “Vitamin K2 Enhances Osteocalcin Accumulation in the Extracellular Matrix of Human Osteoblasts In Vitro,” J. Bone Miner. Res. 12(3), 431–438 (1997).

Mayer Jr, et al., “Synergistic Effect of Low K and D Vitamin Status on Arterial Stiffness in a General Population,” J. Nutr. Biochem. 46, 83–89 (2017).

M.J. Shearer, “The Roles of Vitamins D and K in Bone Health and Osteoporosis Prevention,” Proc. Nutr. Soc. 56(3), 915–937 (1997).

Teshome, et al., “The Impact of Vitamin D Level on COVID-19 Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Front. Public Health 9, 624559 (2021).

Žmitek K, Pogačnik T, Mervic L, Žmitek J, Pravst I. The effect of dietary intake of coenzyme Q10 on skin parameters and condition: Results of a randomised, placebo‐ controlled, double‐blind study. Biofactors. 2017;43(1):132-40. 

 

Zinc

Cabrera AJR. Zinc, aging, and immunosenescence: an overview. Pathobiology of Aging & Age-related Diseases. 2015;5(1):25592.

Gupta M, Mahajan VK, Mehta KS, Chauhan PS. Zinc therapy in dermatology: a review. Dermatology research and practice. 2014;2014.

Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000.

Vollmer DL, West VA, Lephart ED. Enhancing skin health: by oral administration of natural compounds and minerals with implications to the dermal microbiome. International journal of molecular sciences. 2018;19(10):3059.

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